The City of Toronto’s Official Plan articulates a vision in which housing choices are available for all people in their communities, and at all stages of their lives. Toronto’s quality of life, economic competitiveness, and social cohesion depend upon affordable and appropriate housing options. And yet, like so many desirable, rapidly growing cities, housing affordability is increasingly out of reach for many Torontonians. The reality is, there is no “quick fix” to address this challenge. Cities around the world struggle to provide affordable housing. I am increasingly convinced that a myriad of solutions are needed, using a variety of planning tools. I blogged about inclusionary zoning a few weeks ago, and before that I blogged about the Federal and Provincial role. The best examples of providing affordable housing in Toronto, such as the revitalized Regent Park and the St. Lawrence Neighbourhood, have involved all three levels of government playing a clear role.
Section 37 of the Planning Act also has a role to play, and is a tool specific to Ontario municipalities. It can be used by planners to negotiate the integration of affordable housing into a new development. While the affordable housing units secured using Section 37 may seem small, this is reflection of the value of a typical Section 37 agreement. It’s important to note that this is different from a Development Charge, which is a fee collected from developers at the time a building permit is issued to pay for the cost of infrastructure required to provide municipal services (such as roads, transit, water and sewer infrastructure, community centres and fire and police facilities).
Following are some examples wherein Section 37 was used to secure affordable housing units – an approach being applied more and more in instances where it is deemed desirable to do so.
With our population growing and more parents choosing to raise their families in Toronto, access to daycare is a critical component of how we plan and grow our city. Section 37 of the Planning Act enables the City to secure contributions for development applications that exceed a site’s zoned height and density. At the Village Green Square development in Scarborough (near the intersection of Kennedy Road and Highway 401), Section 37 was used to require the developer to provide a non-profit child care facility for local residents. As part of the next phase of development, a second non-profit daycare facility is planned to be opened.
Over the coming weeks, I will be featuring a series of built projects from across Toronto that were secured or funded through Section 37 of Ontario’s Planning Act.
Section 37 enables the City to secure local community benefits from development applicants seeking an increase in height or density. Community benefits from Section 37 must accrue to the local neighbourhood impacted by a specific development. Through this process, a wide range of benefits can be achieved, including heritage preservation, public art, affordable housing, recreation centres, child care facilities, park improvements, space for non-profits, and streetscape improvements. Section 37 plays a vital role in the city building process by delivering tangible benefits in neighbourhoods across Toronto.
Wychwood Barns is truly a special place in Toronto. Located in a former streetcar maintenance facility near St. Clair and Bathurst, an engaged group of individuals helped transform the site into an innovative community cultural hub. Managed by the non-profit group Artscape, the complex includes heritage buildings, public green space, a greenhouse, farmers’ market, a beach volleyball court, offices for local community groups, and event space that accommodates cultural events.
Photo by Mario Giambattista
The challenge of providing affordable housing in rapidly growing urban centers is not new, nor is it easily solved. Around the world, major cities struggle to provide quality and affordable housing options. London and New York, for example, have had long-standing, well-documented crises of affordability that have only accelerated as these cities have become more and more desirable, resulting in considerable growth. As Toronto also grows, we will increasingly be no exception. As I write this, our market is reaching a feverish pitch – with small, semi-detached homes in walkable areas now tipping out over the $800,000 mark. In addition, there are currently 78,000 households on the waiting list for social housing in this city. We already need to be doing more to keep Toronto affordable and inclusive for all.
One of the ways some cities have managed their affordability challenge is to introduce inclusionary housing policies (sometimes known as inclusionary zoning) which make planning approvals conditional on new housing developments containing a specific proportion of affordable units. Simply put, laws are enabled that require new private, market housing developments to also include affordable units. Unlike many U.S. cities, however, Toronto does not have the legislative authority to implement inclusionary housing.
Change is hard. Even when we don’t like the way things are, we sometimes resist change. I recall a community meeting years ago, when as a consultant team we approached a community regarding a proposal to develop a site – a weedy, graffiti filled parking lot known for untoward behavior, that had been the source of community complaints for many years. One resident stood up and said to the crowd: “I like things just the way they are.” This wasn’t the dominant view in the room, but it was a view nonetheless. ‘Just keep things the same’ is sometimes a default position rooted in fear of change.
Density is often touted – by myself included – as key to unlocking a more sustainable, liveable, cost efficient future. Getting density right is central to creating communities where it is possible to do a variety of everyday activities within walking distance from home – like visiting a health clinic, buying groceries, or getting your haircut. Walking has implications for our health, our sense of place, our connectedness to our communities, and our need to reduce our environmental footprint.
So all density is good, right? Not so fast. continue reading
After a rich and robust dialogue at ULI’s Fireside Chat with Mayor Tory last week that focused primarily on planning issues such as midrise development and embracing innovation in our city building, the Mayor was asked for a closing comment. Mayor Tory chose to shift the conversation significantly, by commenting on the importance of fairness. Acknowledging recent data released by the United Way that exposes the widening gap between the rich and the poor in Toronto, Mayor Tory exhorted everyone in the room to recognize the significance of the challenge before us, and the need to prioritize ensuring all Torontonians have the opportunity to thrive.
Broadening participation in our city building processes underpins creating an equitable city, too. In a recent poll undertaken by Ipsos Reid, we learned that of the thousands upon thousands who have participated in our city planning processes over the years, participants have been primarily white, over 55 and home owners. Anyone who knows a thing or two about Toronto knows that our city is mostly foreign born and non-white, and the fastest growing demographic in some parts of the city – like our downtown core, which is driving our condo boom – is under 35. In addition, nearly 40% of Torontonians are renters. continue reading
The Regional Planning Commissioners of Ontario (RPCO), a group of senior officials from municipal governments, recently released the following letter on potential school closures and the Province’s current funding formula. As a co-signer of this letter, I stand behind its statement that closing schools may do “irreparable harm to neighbourhoods, undermining their long-term viability as strong and healthy communities”. It is time to rethink our approach to education delivery and recognize the vital, multi-faceted, role that schools play as anchors in our communities.
RPCO – Closing of Schools and Provincial Funding Formula
This week I had the pleasure of participating in a panel discussion with Brad Ross from the TTC, Pamela Robinson from Ryerson University and Rob Miekle from the City of Toronto as part of a collaboration between Western University and the City on the topic of Open Government.
Open Government is based on this key idea: that good government is rooted in access, transparency and participation. Ultimately, public trust in government will increase (a worthy objective itself) when there is better – and broad – understanding of the functions and roles of government, and as accountability to the public increases. In its corporate Strategic Plan, as adopted by City Council, the City of Toronto bureaucracy has committed to this goal, and the session this week was a critical step towards building internal capacity for delivering on it.